Many women are nervous of catcalling, harassment or even being assaulted when they run outside at night, one female runner has said.
Recreational runner Emily Glen says she has no problem running in the Dublin mountains in the dark - but it would "never occur" to her that she'd be safe in Phoenix Park.
She was speaking after an Irish Times article highlighted how 'men have driven women away from exercising in public'.
Writer Malachy Clerkin highlighted how women often feel 'discomfort or fear' over the prospect of going out for a run outside.
Emily told The Hard Shoulder that none of the issues raised in the article are a surprise, as women have been talking about these things both in private and publicly for a long time.
She also explained that such concerns often change depending on the season.
She told Kieran: "I run in Dublin, in the mountains and the suburbs. I'm quite comfortable running in the mountains and the hills at night, in the dark, on my own... but as soon as you get into the city centre and the suburbs it changes.
"In the summertime... you don't think about these things so much. But in the wintertime, when it's dark, it becomes a bit more of an issue.
"The things women are nervous of actually happened. You hear stories about women being catcalled or harassed... right up to people being assaulted. That's I suppose the ultimate fear."
'Nobody is shocked'
Emily explained that women have to consider a range of factors - from avoiding desolate areas where there are very few people around, to avoiding areas that are too busy.
She said she factors in issues such as whether help will be available if needed, or if she'll be passing drunk people along the route.
While experiences differ depending on who you ask, Emily said bad experiences are not something women are shocked or surprised by.
She said: "I don't go out thinking something's going to happen... but it's so prolific, people commiserate with each other but nobody is shocked.
"Dublin City Council did a study in around 2015... they found this is not just about young lads on bikes.
"This is something that happens at all levels of society... all age groups. It's people driving past you wolf-whistling... it's people making comments... it's people slapping your bum as they walk past or you run past."
She said women have been highlighting this issue for years, and men need to call it out within their own friend groups.
However, she insisted high-level change is also needed - including designing public spaces for women to feel safe in.
She added: "You need cultural change, but you also need infrastructural change."