In March last year, EU members passed a Temporary Protection Directive that conferred on Ukrainian citizens the right to seek refugee in the bloc.
In 2022, some 70,000 Ukrainians arrived in Ireland fleeing the conflict and the Government has struggled to find them all suitable accommodation.
At times, tents have been used and officials are concerned that the crisis will get worse in the spring - when many hotels are expected to begin catering to tourists again.
Speaking to The Pat Kenny Show, Irish Times Europe Correspondent Naomi O’Leary said Ireland is not the only country struggling to cope.
“The situation in Belgium is challenging,” she said.
“The facilities that there are to welcome people have become quite backed up because of the big influx and increase in numbers.
“As a result, there are some problems; usually on arrival people have to register and what’s happening is people are queuing overnight to register.
“Some people have registered and should be entitled to get emergency accommodation but there hasn’t been any available.
“So, hundreds of refugees are sleeping rough [and] some of them have moved into a squatted building… It’s not an ideal situation.”
Since the conflict began, one million Ukrainians have arrived moved to Germany but State Governments are very powerful and the situation varies widely across the country.
“When Ukrainian refugees first arrive, they might be offered an overnight bed in a big emergency accommodation centre - like a gymnasium,” Ms O’Leary said.
“They’ve converted sports facilities, a big trade hall in one case, to welcome people and those are the kind of facilities that come and go depending on demand.
“From there they’d be informed about their rights - there’s a massive centre at a disused Berlin Airport which is used for this.
“Their needs would be assessed and they’d be guided towards appropriate help - whether that might be a room in someone’s house or the private rental sector or whatever might be available.”
Many Ukrainians in Scotland have found themselves living on board former cruise ships.
The Scottish Government has described the situation as “temporary” but, while the contract for a cruise ship moored in Glasgow is due to expire in March, another ship in Edinburgh has had its contract extended for a further five months.
"Our focus now is to secure sustainable longer term accommodation for the Ukrainians to ensure they have the support they need to build a home in Scotland for as long as they need it,” Scotland's Minister for Ukraine Refugees Neil Gray said.
"This includes making full use of existing and new volunteer hosts.
"I'm extremely grateful to people who are already hosting, as well as those who have already put their details forward".
Main image: Ukrainians walk from Ukraine to Isaccea in Romania after crossing the border on March 5th 2022. Picture by: Liviu Pazargic / Alamy Stock Photo