Irish women have been ranked among the heaviest female drinkers in the world in a new global report.
The Lancet medical journal has put Irish women fourth in a league table of 189 countries.
Only women in Lithuania, Moldova and the Czech Republic outpace Irish drinkers.
Ireland overall is at fifth in the world rankings, with adults consuming more than 13 litres of alcohol a year.
Some 40% of the Irish population were classified as heavy episodic drinkers.
This is defined as drinking six or more drinks at least once a month.
The study found that alcohol use is a "leading risk factor for global disease burden".
Data on alcohol exposure is seen as crucial to evaluate progress in achieving global non-communicable disease goals.
It found: "Between 1990 and 2017, global adult per-capita consumption increased from 5.9 litres to 6.5 litres".
It is forecast to reach 7.6 litres by 2030.
"Globally, the prevalence of lifetime abstinence decreased from 46% in 1990 to 43% in 2017, albeit this was not a significant reduction, while the prevalence of current drinking increased from 45% in 1990 to 47% in 2017.
"We forecast both trends to continue, with abstinence decreasing to 40% by 2030 (annualised 0.2% decrease) and the proportion of current drinkers increasing to 50% by 2030 (annualised 0.2% increase)."
It also said that in 2017, 20% of adults were 'heavy episodic drinkers', compared with 1990 when it was estimated at 18.5%.
This prevalence is also expected to increase to 23% in 2030.
Researchers added: "Based on these data, global goals for reducing the harmful use of alcohol are unlikely to be achieved, and known effective and cost-effective policy measures should be implemented to reduce alcohol exposure."