NATO urged Moscow to "take all necessary measures" to ensure its airspace is not violated again`
Turkey has accused Russia of violating its airspace just two months after a similar incident triggered a bitter diplomatic row.
Ankara said a Russian Su-34 jet crossed into its airspace at 11.46am local time on Friday, despite numerous warnings.
Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has demanded a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, saying the incident is a clear sign that Moscow intends to escalate tensions.
Turkey has also summoned the Russian ambassador to Ankara.
A Foreign Ministry statement warned that Russia would be responsible for any "grave consequences" of such actions.
"We are making a clear call to the Russian Federation not to violate Turkish airspace, which is also NATO airspace," the statement said.
"We stress once again that all the responsibility for any unwanted grave consequences as a result of any such irresponsible behaviour will belong entirely to the Russian Federation."
NATO urged Moscow to "take all necessary measures" to ensure its airspace is not violated again.
Turkey shot down a Russian fighter jet on the Syrian border in November, saying it had violated Turkish airspace.
It caused relations between the two countries to plunge to their worst level since the Cold War.
Tensions were already high, with Russia and Turkey on opposing sides of the almost five-year civil war in Syria.
Russia is a key supporter of Syrian President Bashar al Assad, while Turkey argues he should step down.
Moscow launched an air strike campaign in Syria in November, which it said was targeting Islamic State militants, but rebels and residents say it is causing hundreds of civilian casualties.
Almost 1,400 civilians have died in Russian air strikes, according to UK-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights.